Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Several diseases can be contracted through sexual contact including: Gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chlamydia , AIDS  and some liver viruses.

  1. Gonorrhea
  • Symptoms include onset of a burning sensation during urination in addition to the appearance of some of secretions from the urethra that may be transparent or white or yellow, that may turn green.
  • Diagnosis is through direct examination of secretions and culture to determine the appropriate antibiotic. It can also be diagnosed through antibodies (gonorrhea AB).
  1. Syphilis
  • The first symptom is the appearance of genital ulcers in both men and women. Other symptoms include the appearance of a skin rash two weeks after the onset of the genital ulcers in addition to fever.
  • Diagnosis is by collecting a blood sample for the following tests: RPR & VDRL. If the results are positive, a verification tests, TPHA, is also done.
  1. Herpes
    There are two basic types of herpes:
    1. Herpes zoster which affects the nerves and ganglia and leads to severe pain.
    2. Genital Herpes of which there are 2 types; the first type appears in the form of blisters and sores around the mouth and reduced resistance and occurs during kissing or coming in contact with secretions from ulcers. The second type is more dangerous than the first type and cause ulcers on the genitals and is often transmitted by sexual contact and can also be transferred from mother to baby at birth.
    Diagnosis of herpes is through the work on antibodies PCR-HSVI AB - HSVII AB (IgG-IgM) and may also be diagnosed with molecular biology technology.
  1. AIDS
    • AIDS diseases in contracted when a person becomes infected with HIV virus; HIV virus resists the body's immune system, leading to a complete lack of a person’s immune system which makes susceptible to many viruses, cancers and opportunistic infections.
    • AIDS is spread by:
    - Sexual intercourse with a person carrying the virus
    - Shared needles with a person carrying the virus
    - Blood transfusion
    - From mother to fetus before birth or during birth through blood or semen
    - Vaginal secretions and breast milk.
    • AIDS is diagnosed through work done on antibodies to AIDS virus HVI I - II AB and in the event that the results are positive, they are confirmed by WESTERN BLOT analysis and PCR.
  1. Chlamydia
    •Is an infection of the urinary tract contracted through sexual contact, and is one of the main reasons that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease.
    • Symptoms of chlamydia include the presence of secretions, burning sensation in the urethra and feeling uncomfortable with vaginal discharge when urinating in women.
    • Chlamydia is diagnosed by examining the secretion and testing for antibodies to Chlamydia.
  1.  Hepatitis viruses transmitted through sexual contact
    • Some viruses such as Hepatitis (B) and (C) are transmitted by sexual contact.
    • Viral Hepatitis is diagnosed through analysis of antibodies to the virus (B) & (C) and analysis of molecular biology (PCR).

Below is a summary of the tests done for sexually transmitted diseases:

  • For the diagnosis of syphilis: VDRL, PRP & TPHA
  • For diagnosis of herpes HSV Type I: (IgM) - (IgG)
  • For diagnosis of herpes HSV Type II: (IgM) - (IgG)
  • For diagnosis of AIDS: HIV Ab
  • For diagnosis of Chlamydia: Chlamydia Ag
  • For the diagnosis of hepatic viruses: HBs Ag & HCV Ab


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